Types of Courts, Three Tiers in Indonesian Jurisdiction


There are various types of courts in Indonesia. It has a similar concept to the U.S. system with its three-tiered courts in Indonesia. These three-tiered levels are the Supreme Court, High Courts, and District Courts. Each court has its target to solve various issues among society.

Besides, in the special case, there are three courts outlined by general jurisdiction; religious, administrative, and military court. It has been regulated on Judicial Powers 2009 (Undang-Undang Kekuasaan Kehakiman 2009). Each court above has absolute capability and competency within each jurisdictional area of its responsibility.

However, the final decision from each court can be appealed ultimately to the highest; Supreme Court. In the special court case, they also have different High Court; High Courts for Military, Administrative, and Religious Courts. To be more specific, let’s take a look at this brief explanation.

types of courts
types of courts


Three Tiers Types of Court in Indonesia

As mentioned above, there is three tiers court in Indonesia. The main court in a country is called as Supreme Court (Mahkamah Agung) which is located in Indonesia’s capital city; Jakarta. It belongs to the judicial branch of the presidential system.

This highest court is a final for all kinds of issues among society, from criminal to another case, It has a powerful influence on the constitutional with the capacity to review all regulations over the Law (Undang-Undang), including Presidential or Ministerial Regulation.

To accelerate the court function, there are other kinds of courts before submitting a case to the Supreme Court. It is a High Court (Pengadilan Tinggi) that can be found easily in each province. Along with that, there are also Religious High Court (Mahkamah Islam Tinggi), Military High Court (Pengadilan Tinggi Militer), and Administrative High Court (Pengadilan Tinggi Tata Usaha Negara).

Under these high court and Supreme Court, each region also has a District Court (Pengadilan Negeri). By the amendment of Law No. 8, 2004, this court has the authority to verify, inspect, and decide for either criminal or civil law cases. The total district court in Indonesia is approximately 250 established in each region.

types of courts
types of courts

Basic Types of Courts

Regarding its level, the first place to submit a case is through District Court. When the decision can’t be accepted by all parties, you may propose to have reexamination to the High Court. Similarly, when the other party doesn’t agree with the High Court’s decision, the case can be appealed to the Supreme Court. Without considering the tiers, basically, the court can be classified as;

  1. General Court; the court of the general jurisdiction that leads to the High Court to deal, and finalize to Supreme Court.
  2. Industrial Relation Dispute Court; an alternative court to settle employment related to disputes.
  3. Fishery Court; a court that responsible to adjudicate all kinds of fishery crimes.
  4. Taxation Court; it has special authority to arrange and hear all kind of taxation disputes.
  5. Juvenile Courts (Pengadilan Anak); it handles all the case of prosecuting unmarried children aged to 18.
  6. Human Rights Courts (Pengadilan Hak Asasi Manusia); it only has authority over grave violations of human rights.
  7. Constitutional Court; it officially legitimated on November 9, 2001. Unlike the Supreme Court, its decision cannot be challenged anymore.

Due to its authority, each court has its own specialty. Thus, people have to know the categorization of their cases before submitting a case to the court. At least, you understand the differences between these types of courts in Indonesia.

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